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In 2007, I joined Ancestry.com. It never occurred to me that online, unsourced trees were inaccurate. I essentially “copied” my entire Acadian family from potentially erroneous public trees and never looked back. Although my newer entries are sourced, a visit to Stephen A. White, at Moncton University’s Centre d’Études Acadiennes [Center for Acadian Studies] in 2014, revealed a number of errors. I am determined to start from scratch, and verify that I have all available records beginning with the 30 direct ancestors, connected to my maternal grandmother. This includes her parents, grandparents, g-grandparents and g-g-grandparents.
To keep the project manageable, I will write of one ancestor each week.
Prior Weeks (click on a name to read the sketch)
Week #1 – Yvonne Marie (Roy) Billings
Week #2 – Pius/Paul Dost Roy
Week #3 – Marie Laura “Laura” Melanson
Week #4 – Docité OR Dosithée Roy
Week #5 – Victoire LeBlanc
Week #6 – Magloire Melanson
Week #7 – Ausithe/Osite Dupuis
8. Joseph Roy/Roi (King), the fifth and youngest known child, of François Roy/Roi and Vénérande Savoie, was likely born about 20 May 1829 in Wellington Parish, in the village of Bouctouche, New Brunswick (no church entry has been located; the 1901 census reports an exact birth date and his death certificate claims a Wellington parish birth. The informant is unknown in these documents, thus the accuracy can not be predicted, however census data consistently points to a birth year of about 1829).
No document directly names Joseph’s parents; my source for this information is Stephen A. White, at Moncton University’s Centre d’Études Acadiennes [Center for Acadian Studies]; he allowed me to photograph his notes (published here with his permission):
- The 1861 census lists our subject as Joseph “junior”, his likely father as François “junior” and likely grandfather as François “senior”. Perhaps the enumerator meant to communicate that Joseph was the son of Francois Roy/Roi who resided next door or on the same farm.
- Joseph’s middle name is François [as recorded at the baptism of Joseph’s son, Sylvain];
- François and Venerande were named as godparents to Joseph’s daughter Libie;
- François witnessed Joseph’s first marriage, and
- their single daughter Agnes (named as godmother to Joseph’s sons Cyrille and Docite), in 1861 resided with François and then likely resided with Joseph’s eldest son Cyrille from at least 1871 until her death in 1894. Agnes’s baptism entry (below) does name François and Venerande as her parents.
- Joseph Jr., his wife Angelique and Francois Jr., owned land together in Wellington Parish which they jointly sold to Dominique Robicheau as recorded in deed book T, page 79 on 17 December 1869 (Venerande died prior to the transaction, in 1858).
The proximity, frequent interaction and transactions between Joseph, Francois and Venerande during their lifetime point to them being close kin.
Joseph’s known siblings, whose baptism’s were recorded in Bouctouche, include: Olive, Agnes, Pierre and Marie.
Nothing is known of Joseph’s early years; he was likely an uneducated farm hand, working for his father in the small village of Bouctouche, where the population was under 500.
In the parish of St-Jean-Baptiste, Bouctouche a marriage is recorded between Joseph Roi and Henriette Legere in 1847:
Le 2 fevrier 1847 apres après la publication ordinince des bans de mariage faite a nos messes paroissiales entre Joseph Roi et Henriette Legere apres avoir accorde dispense du 3 au 3 et du 4 au 4me degre de consanguinite en vertue des facultes accordees a monseigneur William Dallard par un indulte du sd Octobre 1842 par le St. Siege Ad decennium ces dites facultes nous ayant ete accordies nous avons reçu leur consentement mutual de mariage et leur avons donne la benediction nuptiale en presence de Francois Roi, Isaac LeBlanc
Which translates to something like:
On February 2, 1847 after the publication of banns ordinance made to our parish masses between Joseph Roi and Henrietta Legere after having granted dispensation from 3 to 3 and 4 to the 4th degree of consanguinity in virtue of the powers granted by a Monseigneur William Dallard indulte of October 1842 by the St. Siege Ad Decennium these faculties having been said we accordingly received consent mutual of their marriage and have given the nuptial benediction in the presence of Francois Roi, Isaac LeBlanc
Thus, Joseph Roy was related to his first wife in two ways:
- 3 to 3 (third degree): second cousins, sharing g-grandparents
- 4 to 4 (fourth degree): third cousins, sharing 2nd g-grandparents
During my 2014 visit, Stephen A. White, consulted his notes and in minutes crafted the following to define the kinship:
Children of Joseph and Henriette included:
(1) Cyrille – baptized 20 November 1847, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche.
(2) Pierre – baptized 30 November 1849, in St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparents were Pierre Hebert and Marie Roi.
(3) Libie (Lébée/Lybie?)– baptized 28 Dec 1851, in St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche; godparents were François Roy and Vénérande Savoie. It is possible that she died young, was adopted and/or the name “Libie” is in error, as it is not a “typical” name of the place/time. To date, she has not been found in other records.
(4) Hippolite – baptized 9 Feb 1853, in St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche; godparents were Louis Legere and Olive LeBlanc. He was not living with the Roy family in any census year and according to his marriage record, was adopted after his mother’s death by Eustache Poirier and his wife Cecile Legere (daughter of Simon Legere and Marie-Rose Arsenault and his mother Henriette’s biological cousin). He resided with them in 1871 in Grande-Digue and was enumerated as Hyppolyte Poirier. It is unknown whether he had a relationship with his biological family, nonetheless, with the exception of this census, all records seem to indicate that he used the Roy surname for his lifetime.
Henriette’s death was registered at St-Jean-Baptiste in Bouctouche : On 23 April 1853, Henriette Legere, 31 years old, spouse of Joseph Roi, died the “day before yesterday and was buried in the cemetery of this parish”.
Joseph married second, on 13 Nov 1855, (Judith) Angélique Beliveau, in Scoudouc, Westmorland, New Brunswick, Canada, daughter of Amand Belliveau and Natalie Bourgeois.
The marriage record reads:
Scoudouc, Westmoreland N.B., St Jacques- le 13 Novembre 1855, après la publication ordinince des bans de mariage entre Joseph Roy veuf majeure de défunt Léger de Bouctouche d’una part, et Angelique Beliveau fille mineure de Amand Beliveau et de Natalie Bourgeois de la missons de Squédouc, d’autre part ne s’étant découvert aucun empêchement et __ le consentement des parents nous prêtre soussigné avons reçu leur mutual consentement de mariage et leur avons donne la benediction nuptiale en presence de Joseph Maillet et de Euphamie Beliveau qui ainsi que les époux niut su signer.
Which translates to something like:
Scoudouc, Westmoreland N.B., St Jacques- the 13 November 1855, after the publication of banns of marriage ordinance between Joseph Roy, of legal age, widower of deceased Léger of Bouctouche on the one part and Angelique Beliveau minor daughter of Amand Beliveau and Natalie Bourgeois of the mission of Scoudouc on the other part, having received no impediment and having ___ consent from the parents we priest undersigned have received their mutual consent of marriage and have given them the nuptial blessing in the presence of Joseph Maillet and of Euphamie Beliveau which together with the spouses sign this night.
Children of Joseph and Angelique included:
Docite/Dosithee, Sifroi, Henriette, Sylvain, Cécile, Vital, Olivier and Jude
1851/1861 Canadian Census
The 1851 Canadian census for Kent County did not survive.
By 1861, the family resided on a farm in the Parish of Wellington, Kent County (which included the area of St. Mary’s Parish until 1867) and used the surname King (English translation of Roy); they were Roman Catholic.
- Joseph, junior, age 31, farmer
- Angélique, age 29, wife
- Ceril, age 14, son [likely Cyrille]
- Peter, age 12, son [likely Pierre]
- Docité, age 4, son [see sketch week #4]
- Cephor, age 3, son [likely Sifroi, baptized 12 November 1858, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparent was Charles Maillet]
- Onriette, age 1, daughter [likely Henriette, baptized 2 December 1860, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparents were Jean C. Maillet and Marraine Henriette Bastarache]
Next door (or on a farm nearby) are Joseph’s likely paternal relatives:
- Frank, junior, age 63, widower, farmer [Joseph’s father, Francois – According to Stephen White’s “La généalogie des trente-sept familles, hôtesses des « Retrouvailles 94 » – SAVOIE , his wife, Vénérande, died in Bouctouche 27 May 1858]
- Olive. age 39, daughter [likely Joseph’s sister]
- Onyez [Agnes ?], age 37, daughter [likely Joseph’s sister]
- Frank, senior, age 92, lodger [likely Joseph’s paternal grandfather – Francois]
Joseph had 33 acres, of which 20 had been improved, valued at $150, with other farm machinery valued at $20. He had no employees. His father’s farm was quite similar (details in a future sketch).
His animals included: two horses; two milk cows; two working oxen; four sheep; and six swine/pigs.
He reported slaughtering 400 pounds of pork; netted eight pounds of wool; and created $20 of cloth (or similar manufactured products). Eight acres of land was dedicated to production of hay (he netted three tons). The farm produced 30 bushels of wheat (from three acres), eight bushels barley (from 1/2 acre), 50 bushels oats (from four acres), twelve bushels buckwheat (from one acre) and 300 bushels potatoes (from three acres).
The farm was likely situated in Bouctouche in the area labelled “Francis King” on the map (No100) below. Since Joseph’s mother, Vénérande, died in Bouctouche in 1858; this further strengthens the case that they resided there.
Land deeds have not yet been examined fully. The known grantor/grantee indexes for the Roy/King surnames in Kent County from 1827 to 1941 can be found here: New Brunswick Roy deeds
The census reported that none of Joseph’s children had attended school the prior year. At that time, schooling was largely through traveling teachers who served many villages at once. It was not until the time of the Canadian Confederation, in 1867, that the Acadians were able to re-establish some semblance of their pre-expulsion society. At that time, schools were founded (although education was not highly valued in many areas and the offerings were not ideal for several decades) and the people began taking an active part in political life (as Catholic’s they were previously denied the right to vote or participate in the legislature). Although many continued to lived in abject poverty; a contributing factor being that Acadian farmers primarily held land along the coast, in less fertile areas.
1871 Canadian Census
In 1871 the family was enumerated (with four additional children) in Sainte-Marie-de-Kent (Olivier born 1870 was the first Roy child baptized in Ste Marie at Mont-Carmel), which in 1871 had a population of 100.
Sainte-Marie-de-Kent (often called Sainte-Marie) is a Canadian village in Kent County, New Brunswick. Today located in the parish of Saint Mary’s, which was established in 1867 from part of Wellington Parish; the same year Canada officially become a country. The village is located about 28 miles north of Moncton on North side of the Buctouche River, 1.4 miles North East of Upper Bouctouche. Its residents are largely Acadian, most of whom speak French in its local variant Chaic.
- Joseph, 42, cultivateur (farmer), can not read or write
- Angelique, 40, can not read or write
- Docitée, 13
- Sylvain, 9 [ baptized 12 December 1861, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparents were Sylvain Maillet and Marraine Jeanette LeBlanc. Joseph’s middle name is given as Francois]
- Cécile, 5 [baptized 4 June 1866, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparents were Cyrille Roy and Cecile Allain]
- Vitál, 8 [likely baptized 30 March 1868, St-Jean Parish in Bouctouche. Godparents were Edouard and Marraine Genevieve Belliveau. Note that his mother is recorded as “Julie”, this was the only record in the parish that was likely the correct baptism for Vital, perhaps Julie is in error and it was meant to be Judith. His marriage record names Judith as his mother, and when he travels to the US in 1916 he gives a contact in Canada as a brother Sylvain.]
- Olivier, 10 months [baptized 5 June 1870, at Ste. Marie de Mont-Carmel. Godparents were _____ Maillet and _____ Richard]
Joseph’s sons Cyrille and Pierre are residing together nearby, in Saint Marie, with Agnes Roy [sister of Joseph]. No other members of the King/Roy family were found nearby in 1861. A widowed Frances Roi, of the correct age to be Joseph’s father was found in Wellington residing with the family of Joseph & Mary Ferware (enumerated as Jerway in 1861 and two census pages away from the Roy’s in Wellington), perhaps Fougere?
Joseph and Angelique were unable to read or write (this question was only asked of those over age 20) but presumably no one in the family could read/write as none of the children were attending school.
Joseph, in 1871, seemed to own significantly more acreage than he did in 1961. He had 125 acres of which 30 were improved and 12 were pasture (they did not have a garden). There were two dwelling houses on the property, one of which was uninhabited. They had one barn or stable, two carriages or sleighs, 2 cars/wagons or sleds and one plough or cultivator.
Animals included: one horses over 3 years old; two working oxen; three milk cows; one “other horned cattle”; six sheep – 6 (one was killed or sold for slaughter/export); five swine/pigs (one was killed or sold for slaughter/export)
The farm produced eight acres of wheat crops on which he netted the followings bushels – 30 of spring wheat (sown in the spring and is harvested in the fall), seven of barley, 60 of oats and 90 of buckwheat. He had four acres of potatoes which netted 125 bushels. He had two acres of hay which netted three-ton of 2,000 lbs or bundles of 16 lbs of hay and 40 bushels of apples. The sheep netted 20 pounds of wool which produced 60 yards of home-made cloth or flannel.
Joseph did not appear to be involved with fishing, forestry or mineral products. It is possible that he was involved with steel/iron as a Blacksmith “Ouvrages et réparations de Forgerons en tout genre” (Works and Repairs of Blacksmith of all kinds). The schedule has a line through his name, it is unknown if the enumerator crossed this out or if it was done later – he was only involved in the business for 1/2 a month and although he had $40 in capital only made a few dollars. It could be a business that was discontinued that census year but was perhaps run in years prior.
Sixteen people died in St Marie the prior year, most from consumption, malaria or diarrhea. There were two Roy’s, likely related – schedule here. Joseph’s father, who had lived near them in 1861, Francois Roy, died 25 April 1875.
1881 Canadian Census (only schedule 1, population was preserved)
In 1881, the family continued to reside in the parish of Sainte-Marie (with one additional child):
- Joseph, 52, cultivateur (farmer)
- Angelique, 51
- Silvin [Sylvain], 19
- Aurietta [Henriette], 20
- Cecille [Cécile], 15
- Vitál, 13
- Olivier, 11
- Jude, 7 [baptized 24 June 1873, at Ste. Marie de Mont-Carmel. Godparents were Dosite Roy and Domtilda Cormier]
- Docitée, 23 was listed as a widower and enumerated separately [the day after the remainder of the family was recorded, see margin notes], it appears that he resided on the same farm.
Jude and Vital were attending school (Olivier, age 11, was not marked as in school which may have been an enumerator error, although 1901, 1911 and 1921 censuses specify he can not read or write).
Cyrille, his wife Genevieve, six children and Joseph’s sister, Agnes Roy live together in Sainte-Marie, as does Pierre, his wife Madeline, and four children, Sigefroi, his wife (name unreadable, likely Judeste) and daughter [E]ugenie. Hyppolyte/Hippolite resides in Moncton with his wife Marie Rose and two children; he is a farmer. They are residing next door or possibly in the same home as Hyppolyte’s adoptive parents.
1891 Canadian Census (only schedule 1, population was preserved)
In 1891, Joseph and Angelique with a few of their children continue to reside in the parish of Sainte-Marie:
Joseph, 61, alt
Next door [or possibly on the same farm] is their son Sylvain, his wife Marie and their 5 children; nearby in Sainte-Marie are son Cyrille, his wife Genevieve, ten children and Joseph’s sister Agnes Roy, also son Pierre, his wife Madeline and seven children, son Docitée, his wife Victorie and their three children. Daughter Cécile is next door (or perhaps on the same farm) as her brother Docitée with her husband Jean Collet/Collette and two children.
Henrietta was in Wellington with her husband Domicien LeBlanc and three children. Sigefroi was living with his wife Adele and five children in Grande-Digue, Dundas Parish. Hippolite and Vitál were not definitively identified in the 1891 census.
in 1898 St. Mary’s was a farming and fishing community with 1 post office, 4 stores, 1 cheese factory, 1 church and population had grown to about 1,000.
1901 Canadian Census (this census includes birth day, month and year)
In 1901 some of the family continues to reside in the parish of Sainte-Marie:
Joseph, 71, cultivator
Next door [or possibly on the same farm] is the family of their son Olivier, his wife Celeste and their five children. Cyrille, his second wife Barbe and ten children also live in Sainte-Marie; two teenagers named Octavia & Henriette LeBlanc reside with them, he names them as daughters [perhaps step-daughters ?]. Also in Sainte-Marie is their son Sylvain, with his wife Marie and nine children and Cécile who was residing with her husband Jean/John D. Collet/Collette with six children.
Docitée (enumerated as Doss King), his wife Victorie and their three children have relocated to Lancaster, Saint John, New Brunswick. Sigefroi was living with his wife Adele and five children in Grande-Digue, Dundas Parish. Vitál was residing nearby in the Parish of Wellington, with wife Margerite and four children. Pierre, Hippolite and Henrietta were not definitively identified in the 1901 census.
1911 Canadian Census
Angelique, noted as a farmer’s wife, died on 13 March 1907 at age 77, the cause was “decline”, she had been ill “all winter”. She is likely buried in St Mary’s.
In 1911 a widowed Joseph and his widowed son Jude, reside in the parish of Sainte-Marie on the farm now owned by his son Docite’s family:
Docite, 53, cultivateur (farmer)
Pius, 24 [my g-grandfather]
Laura, 19 [Pius’ wife; my g-grandmother]
Joseph, 83, retired
Olivier was still in Ste Marie with his wife Celeste and eleven children. He was a farmer. Cyrille was also enumerated in St Mary’s with his second wife and several children. Pierre resided in Dundas with his wife Madeline and two children near Sigefroi who resided there with his wife and several children.
Sylvain was enumerated in Moncton under the surname King, at 7 Harper’s, with his wife Marie, four children and three young boarders all using the surname King (likely relatives). Interestingly, his wife is listed as head of household and he is enumerated as “husband”. The only death certificate located for a Sylvain Roy of the right age, gives his death as 1910 at St. Mary’s; he may be deceased but was somehow mistakenly enumerated, which would explain why his wife is listed as head of household.
Hennrietta, Cécile & Vital were not definitively identified in the 1911 census. Hippolite died 18 Jun 1911 in Grande-Digue; his family has not been located in the 1911 census.
Joseph died suddenly on 26 May 1913 of “old age” and is likely buried in St Mary’s; he was 84 and a retired farmer.
Probate records do not survive for Kent County.
Joseph was the subject of a past blog post, which can be found here; although not comprehensive and likely having errors, it includes additional details of Joseph’s children and many of his grandchildren.
Comments, corrections and updates appreciated!